Despite the increased interest in domestic technology transfer, there is surprisingly little empirical evidence on determinants of technology transfer activity. This study presents results from a national survey of more than 900 laboratories, focusing on a sub-sample of 134 government laboratories and 139 university laboratories. An environmental dependence model of technology transfer activity is presented, arguing that influence of political authority is a major determinant of technology transfer activity. Tests of the model indicated that scientific and technical mission diversity is particularly important in understanding technology transfer to both government and industry. However, a variety of measures of political boundary spanning are quite important in transfer to government but not so to industry. Likewise, the nature of the resource base (government vs. industrial) is strongly related to the choice to transfer technology to, respectively, government and industry.
Bozeman, B., & Crow, M. (1991). Technology transfer from US government and university R&D laboratories. Technovation, 11(4), 231-246.