Formal university technology transfer mechanisms, through licensing agreements, research joint ventures, and university-based startups, have attracted considerable attention in the academic literature. Surprisingly, there has been little systematic empirical analysis of the propensity of academics to engage in informal technology transfer. This paper presents empirical evidence on the determinants of three types of informal technology transfer by faculty members: transfer of commercial technology, joint publications with industry scientists, and industrial consulting. We find that male, tenured and research-grant active faculty members are more likely to engage in all three forms of informal technology transfer.
Link, A. N., Siegel, D. S., & Bozeman, B. (2007). An empirical analysis of the propensity of academics to engage in informal university technology transfer. Industrial and corporate change, 16(4), 641-655.